**IDENTIFYING VARIABLES (continued section from part 1)**

Based on the information from the course reader, answer the following questions. 11-20

11. Suppose a researcher plans to investigate the following questions: Will students who are taught by a team of three teachers learn more science than students taught be one individual teacher? What are the independent and dependent variable in this question?

– Independent variable : a team of three teachers and one individual teacher

– Dependent variable : students

12. What are the variables in the following questions: Will students who are taught history by a teacher of the same gender like the subject more than students taught by a teacher of a different gender?

– Independent variable: a teacher of the same gender and a teacher of a different gender.

– Dependent variable: students.

13. Suppose the hypothesis of a study is: Pupils subject to high levels of criticism exhibit more aggressive acts than those not so criticized. Decide which of the three variables given – frustration, criticized or not criticized, and aggressive acts – are independent, dependent and intervening.

– Independent variable: criticized or not criticized

– Dependent variable: aggressive acts

– Intervening variable: frustration

14. Suppose the hypothesis of a study is: Pupil given more positive feedback experiences will have more positive attitudes to other than pupils given fewer positive feedback experiences. Decide which of the three variables given – self-esteem, attitudes to others, and number of positive feedback experiences – are independent, dependent and intervening.

– Independent variable: number of positive feedback experiences

– Dependent variable: attitudes to others

– Intervening variable: self-esteem.

15. Spot out the independent and the dependent variables in this situation: Half of a group of third-graders was shown a film on “sharing”, while other half was not shown the film. The attitudes of the students in both groups towards sharing candy were then measured, and their average scores were compared.

– Independent variable: half of a group of third-grader and other half

– Dependent variable: sharing

– Constant (if any): students

16. What are active and attribute variables? Give an example for each one.

– Active variables are variables that can be manipulated, changed or controlled. E.g. (program service)

– Attribute variables are variables that can’t be manipulated, changed or controlled, and reflect the characteristics of the study population.

E.g. (age, gender, or education)

17. What is the difference between categorical and continuous variables?

– Categorical variable or qualitative variables are measured on nominal or ordinal measurement scales.

– Continuous variables or quantitative variables are made either on an interval or ratio scale.

18. For each of the variables listed below, indicate whether it is categorical or quantitative:

a. __Categorical__ Counseling style

b. __Quantitative_ Scores on a ten-point biology quiz

c. __Categorical__ Grade level (freshman, sophomore, junior and senior)

d. __Categorical__ Handedness ( left-handed and right-handed)

e. __Quantitative_ Weight (in kilos)

f. __Categorical__ Religion (Buddhism, Islamism, and other)

g. __Quantitative_ Grade point average

h. __Categorical__ Anxiety level

19. What are the three types of categorical variables? Briefly explained and exemplify each one.

– Constant is a variable that can have only one category. E.g. ( taxi, water or tree)

– Dichotomous is a variable that can have only two categories.

E.g. ( yes/no or good/ bad)

– Polytomous is a variable that can be divided into more than two categories.

E.g. (Christian, Muslim or Hindu)

20. What are the four types of measurement scales? Explain and exemplify each one.

– Nominal or classificatory scale enables the classification of individuals, objects or responses based on a common/ shared property or characteristic.

– The ordinal or ranking scale has all the properties of a nominal scale pus one of its own.

– The interval scale has all the characteristic of an ordinal scale.

– The ratio scale has all the properties of nominal, ordinal and interval scale pus its own property.