Based on the information from the course reader, answer the following questions. 1-10
1. What are the two significant considerations needed in the process of formulating a research problem?
– The two significant considerations are the use of concepts and the construction of hypotheses.
2. Why is it necessary for researchers to operationalize concepts?
– Operationalize concepts plays a vital role in reducing this subjectivity.
3. How do we normally make judgments?
– We normally make judgment based upon our own preferences, indicators or assessment.
4. What can we do to get a rational and sound judgment?
– We can do to get a rational and sound judgment due to warranting the use of a measuring mechanism and it is process of measurement that knowledge about variable plays an important role.
5. What is a variable and how important is it in the research process?
– A variable is a property that can take on many values and it is important measurement scales in the research process.
6. What is the major distinction between a concept and a variable?
– A concept is metal images or perceptions of varying marked from individual to individual.
– A variable is measurable with varying degrees of accuracy.
7. Why is it crucial for concepts to be converted into variables?
– They can be subjected to measurement the degrees of precision with varying form scale to scale.
8. How can we measure a concept?
– We can measure a concept of their understanding in different form person to person.
9. According to the text, into how many ways can a variable be classified? Briefly explained each classification.
– There are three ways:
a. The cause relationship or causal model is divided into changing variables, outcome variable, affecting the link between cause and effect variables, and connecting or linking variables.
b. The design of the study or study design is related to either can manipulate or cannot manipulate.
c. The unit of measurement is measurable on continuous and categorical variables.
10. What are independent, dependent, extraneous and intervening variables?
– Independent variables are the cause supposed to be responsible for bringing about change(s) in a phenomenon or situation.
– Dependent variables are the outcome of the changes brought about by changes in an independent variable.
– Extraneous variables are several other factors operating in real-life situation may affect changes attributed to independent variables.
– Intervening variables or confounding variables link the independent and dependent variable.
(please find a continued section part 2)