Skip to content

Shifting tensions HE & VET in France Part III : Conclusion

Shifting tensions between Higher Education (HE) and Vocational Education and Training (VET) in France


The Vocational Education and Training have really an important role in develop their pupils’ professional skills which are the most challenging into the labour market. Also, general education or higher education policy maker try to produce the policy that is linked and included the professional skill which can provide more opportunity for student to easily find a job when graduate. Moreover, at tertiary level in France, the gap between mass tertiary education and elite education provided through the Grandes écoles remains important because a large share of the students who compete for upper management and higher civil servant positions are recruited from the Grandes écoles. Also, the distinction between universities and universities of applied science also remains prominent, despite the introduction of Bachelors and Masters Degrees in its organizational forms, which enables to compete more directly for students than before. Such institutional relationships between future occupational positions and vocational and higher education opportunities discussed here will have to be further explored, especially as standardization efforts, such as the European Qualification Framework, are developed and applied.


Coutrot,  L. and A. Kieffer (2009). Improved opportunities and increased segregation: underlying  tensions between vocational and general education in France. Expected and Unexpected consequences of the Educational Expansion in Europe and the U.S.A. R. Becker and A. Hadjar. Bern, Haupt. Retrieve June 14, 2012 from: /accueil.php/Vocational Training Centres, CFA/79095.pdf

Kieffer, A. and L. Tanguy (2001). “The movement of labour market research toward the social involvement 1980-2000. ” Economic and Society 1: 95-109. Retrieve June 05, 2012 from:

Justin, J.W. Powell, Laurence Coutrot+, Lukas Graf, Nadine Bernhard, Annick Kieffer+, Heike Solga        (2009). Comparing the Relationship between Vocational and Higher Education in Germany and France. Discussion Paper SP I 2009-506. Retrieve from: ded_files/publications/CoRebVoHE_ReportFG_20090612.pdf

Powell, J.W., Coutrot, L., Graf L., Bernhard N., Kieffer, A. (2009). Shifting Tensions between                                               Vocational and General Education in France and Germany. Equalsoc Working Paper. Retrieve from: 02.pdf

Sour H., D’Amico S. Thavin P., Consolidating Gains, Preparing for Change: Cambodia’s Labour Force and Diversification: Cambodia Outlook Conference (2011).  Retrieve from: /uploaded_files/public/ob4e.pdf

Trottier, C. (2005). “The analysis between education system and educational social labour market” Education et sociétés 16 /2: 77-97.

Sandra, D. (2010). Higher Education and Skills for the Labor Market in Cambodia. Retrieve July 02, 2012 from:// /home/archive/issues2010/un_ac ademic_impact/SimplyHelp_Cambodia_vocational_education_model.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *